Mycoplasma, a genus of bacteria, consists of around 200 recognized species that can affect both humans and animals. Among these, Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the most well-known for causing respiratory infections in humans. However, mycoplasma infections are often understudied and misdiagnosed due to their subtle presentation. Chronic mycoplasma infection, in particular, has the potential to lead to serious health issues if left untreated, highlighting the need for increased awareness and understanding.

What is Mycoplasma?

Mycoplasmas are unique bacteria characterized by their lack of a cell wall. This feature makes them resistant to many common antibiotics such as penicillins or cephalosporins, which usually target the bacterial cell wall. Mycoplasmas are known for their small genome, and their inability to synthesize certain essential compounds, forcing them to rely on their host for survival.

Chronic Mycoplasma Infections: An Overview

Chronic mycoplasma infections usually occur when initial infection is left untreated or inadequately treated. While acute mycoplasma infections are typically associated with respiratory symptoms like cough, fever, and fatigue, chronic mycoplasma infections can cause a wide range of more subtle and often non-respiratory symptoms.

These include persistent fatigue, muscle and joint pain, sleep disorders, cognitive difficulties, among others. Due to their broad symptomatology and the lack of routine testing, chronic mycoplasma infections often remain undiagnosed or are misdiagnosed as other conditions like fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue syndrome.

Impact on Human Health

The impact of chronic mycoplasma infection on human health can be significant. When left unchecked, these infections can lead to chronic inflammation and potentially cause damage to various body systems. Some research also suggests a link between chronic mycoplasma infections and conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, neurological disorders, and even certain types of cancer.

Moreover, the immune response to a chronic mycoplasma infection can lead to autoimmunity, where the body’s immune system starts attacking its own cells. This is due to molecular mimicry, a mechanism whereby the immune system can mistake our cells for invading mycoplasma bacteria due to similarities in certain proteins.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosing chronic mycoplasma infection can be challenging due to its diverse presentation and the limitations of currently available diagnostic tools. However, advancements are being made in developing more accurate and sensitive tests, which will hopefully improve the detection of these infections.

When it comes to treatment, the absence of a bacterial cell wall in mycoplasma makes them impervious to certain antibiotics. Hence, the treatment of choice often involves the use of macrolides, tetracyclines, or fluoroquinolones. However, there are increasing reports of antibiotic resistance in mycoplasma, indicating the need for new therapeutic strategies.

Importantly, managing chronic mycoplasma infection requires a holistic approach that goes beyond antimicrobial treatment. It involves treating symptoms, supporting the immune system, reducing inflammation, and promoting overall health through lifestyle interventions such as a balanced diet and regular exercise.


Chronic mycoplasma infection is a subtle but significant threat to human health. As our understanding of these infections improves, it is crucial for healthcare professionals to consider mycoplasma in the differential diagnosis of chronic, unexplained symptoms. With enhanced diagnostic methods and an integrated treatment approach, we can better manage these infections, mitigating their impact on patient health and quality of life.

It’s a promising field of ongoing research with new findings being published regularly, and one can only anticipate further breakthroughs in the future, leading to better diagnosis, treatment, and perhaps, prevention of chronic mycoplasma infections.